Trichosclereids present. HABIT : evergreen herbs, stem short, upright. LEAVES : several. PETIOLE : geniculate apically. BLADE : oblong-elliptic, or ovate to lanceolate, often oblique, apex cuspidate to acuminate, base attenuate to rounded; primary lateral veins pinnate, running into marginal vein, secondary and tertiary laterals parallel-pinnate, higher order venation forming transverse cross connections, often obscured. INFLORESCENCE : solitary. PEDUNCLE : shorter than petiole. SPATHE : white, with distinct midrib and pinnate primary lateral veins, tightly clasping the spadix, marcescent after anthesis, gradually decomposing. SPADIX : sessile to shortly stipitate, cylindric, fertile to apex. FLOWERS : bisexual, perigoniate; tepals 4, fornicate apically and ± truncate, connate into a truncate cup. STAMENS : 4, filaments short, oblong, subequal to anthers, connective slender, thecae oblong, dehiscing by longitudinal slit. POLLEN : inaperturate, ellipsoid, medium-sized (mean 33 µm., range 32-34 µm.), exine striate. GYNOECIUM : subcylindric to ovoid, ovary 1-locular, ovules many, anatropous, funicle long, placenta basal, stylar region cylindric, ± as broad as ovary, stigma oblong or 3-4-lobed. BERRY : 1-few-seeded. SEED : irregularly oblong-ellipsoid, narrowed towards micropyle, testa minutely verrucose or smooth, embryo elongate, endosperm copious.